Enderman, 3 blok yüksekliğinde insansı tarafsız bir yaratıktır. Kışkırtılınca saldırırlar. Bazı blokları alabilme ve ışınlanabilme özellikleriyle tanınırlar.
Bu özellikler dışında Enderman, diğer tarafsız yaratıklardan farklı olarak üst bacaklarına, vücutlarına ve kafalarına bakınca da saldırır. Bu özellik 25 blok uzaktan hatta daha öteden bile bakarken ortaya çıkabilir. Endermanlar ayrıca oyuncuyu 65 block öteden görme özelliğine sahiptir. Bir oyuncu Enderman'i bakarak kışkırttığında Enderman ağzını açar ve oyuncu oradan uzaklaşana kadar oyuncuya bakar. Enderman herhangi bir şekilde kışkırtıldığında Zombi Domuzadamlara ve Kurtlara benzer, korkutucu bir ses çıkarır. Mağaraların derinliklerinde bir oyuncunun yakınında Enderman varsa oyuncu çığlık sesleri duyabilir.
Endermanler genellikle kendi evleri olan End'de doğarlar ama hala 7 ya da daha az ışık seviyesi gereklidir. Diğer yaratıklara oranla 10 kat daha az sıklıkla yeryüzünde de doğarlar. Gruplar şeklinde doğarlar ve düzenli olarak geceleri 5 Enderman'e varan guruplar şeklinde görülürler.
Dış Görünüş[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
Enderman'ler uzun uzuvlara (üst bacak) ve ince vücuda sahiptirler. Yüne benzer siyah derileri (incelemek zordur) ve parlayan mor gözleri vardır. Işınlanırken Nether portalındaki ve ender sandığındaki gibi mor parçacıklar yayarlar.
Agresifken ağızlarını açarlar ve size hızla koşuyormuş gibi sallanırlar. Bu hareketi yaparken ilginç bir ses çıkarırlar. Agresifken ışınlanınca oyuncunun arkasında belirmeye meyillidirler.
Davranış[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
Endermanler Zombi Domuzadamlar ve Kurtlar gibi saldırılmadığı sürece karşılık vermeyen tarafsız yaratıklardır. Farklı yönü ise nasıl kışkırtıldığıdır. Birine saldırmak dışında, vücuduna ve daha üstüne bakıldığında da saldırırlar. (Hayatta Kalma modunda üst bacak) Bu "bakınca saldırma" olayı çok uzaklardan da etkilediğinden düzlük alanları ya da çölleri incelerken dikkatli olunmalıdır.
Kışkırtıldığı zaman, Endermanler ağızlarını açarlar ve öfkeyle sallanırlar. Oyun durdurulsa bile sallanmaya devam ederler. Böyle bir durumda,gövdesine bakmak onun hareket etmemesine yol açacaktır, ve daha sonra gidip onlara saldırabilirsiniz.Enderman'i kışkırtmak oyuncunun uzun ve tehditkâr bir ses duymasına yol açacaktır. Bu ses Enderman'in bulunduğu konumdan bağımsızdır; herhangi bir şekilde ölse bile veya uzaklaşsa bile (sudan hasar alması gibi...) ses yine de devam edecektir.Aksine ses sona erdiğinde,Enderman'in öfkesi hala geçmemiş olabilir. Pek çok bildiri şunu gösteriyor ki ; Enderman görünür durumda olduğu zamanlar bile ışınlanabilecek yetenektedir, ve hiper hız verebilir kendisine , bu kasıtlı yapılmış bir şey mi yoksa bir bozukluk mu olduğu bilinmiyor.
Endermen düşmanını yakalamadan bırakmaz; yüzlerce metre ileri gidilse bile öldürene kadar ya da dış etmenler tarafından dikkati dağıtılana kadar (su veya yağmur gibi) peşini bırakmaz.Düşman Enderman aniden ortadan kaybolduğunda çok dikkatli olunmalıdır. Onlar hala size öfkelidirler, fakat sadece biraz uzağa ışınlanmıştırlar.Ya kapalı bir alandadırlar veya bir yere sıkışmışlardır. Şanslıysanız, suya ya da lavın içine ışınlanmış olabilirler, bu onları nötr hale getirecektir. Bazen siz maden kazarken Enderman görebilirsiniz, mantıklı olan yanınıza bir kova su ya da lav almanızdır.
Enderman gündüzleri pasif haldedir, oyunculara saldırmaktansa kaçmayı tercih ederler, bundan dolayı Enderman gündüzleri yüzeyde nispeten faha az zararlıdır. Fakat Endermanlar şafak söktüğünde çok hızlı bir şekilde yeraltına inerler. Bu yüzden gündüz yüzeyde bir Enderman görme ihtimali çok azdır.
Yaratıcı Modda, Endermanlere bakarak onları kışkırtamazsınız,sadece vurmanızla kışkırtılmış olur.
Enderman transparan blokların içinden oyuncuları göremez. Cam ve ince cam gibi...
Enderman'in göze çarpan özelliği blokları alıp taşıyabilmesidir.
Işınlanma[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
Genellikle ışınlandıklarında arkalarında Nether portalıyla aynı şekilde mor parçacıklar bırakırlar. Fakat Enderman ışınlanırken bir blok taşıyorsa bu mor izi bırakmazlar. Enderman'ler su veya yağmur ile temas halinde ışınlanırlar. Enderman'ler zıplamadan bir tam bloğun üstüne çıkabilirler. Işınlanırken 32m içinde hava bloğu (boşluk)ararlar. Eğer bu boşluğun altında katı bir blok varsa ne olursa olsun ışınlanırlar. An Enderman can teleport onto any solid block, exceptions being blocks directly beneath water or lava. They can also not spawn on half-slabs and in spaces less than 3 blocks vertically.
An Enderman cannot teleport when it is in a minecart. However, if it is hit with a projectile, it will teleport out of the minecart and then immediately teleport back. It is nearly impossible to hit it with a projectile, even glitched. A flaming arrow will miss the Enderman, but it will still light the Enderman on fire. Likewise, when water falls on an Enderman while it is in a minecart, it will repeatedly try to teleport out of the minecart, but then will immediately teleport back into the cart. It will continue this until it eventually dies or the water is stopped. Endermen can also teleport into houses. In creative, if an enderman gets stuck in a hole 3 blocks deep, and is aggressive, it will not be able to teleport to get out. If you hit an enderman they will usually teleport behind you and start attacking you so make sure to have your back against something.
Blok taşıma[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
Endermanler yerleştirilme biçimi (oyuncu tarafından veya doğal olarak) gözetilmeden ve istisnasız şekilde belirli blokları taşıyabilirler. Oyuncuların erişebildiği mesafeye benzer şekilde (3 blok çevresi) yakınlarında dikey veya yatay bulunan blokları alabilirler.
Endermanler tutukları blockları kızdıklarında veya öldüklerinde düşürmezler.Sadece ,tuttukları block ortadan kaybolur.
Endermanler sadece bu blockları kaldırabilir: 
Because Endermen possess the ability to move blocks, they can cause damage to the natural environment and in some cases player-built structures. They can also allow fenced animals to jump out by placing blocks adjacent to fences. Their block handling is not purposeful, but they may randomly breach walls and the like.
On the Overworld signs of Endermen activity will become apparent in frequently loaded chunks in the form of misplaced blocks. In desert areas, Endermen may also propagate cacti by removing blocks and placing them on fresh sand, gradually increasing the population of cacti in frequently loaded deserts.
Endermen do not spawn in lit areas but they may wander or teleport into lit areas from adjacent dark ones, particularly if rain or water causes them to teleport. It can be risky to stay awake at night, as an Enderman can teleport into your house. This is more apparent in large buildings, where rain may cause the building to be invaded by multiple endermen. Therefore, lighting your structures with torches is not a guaranteed defense. However, they will not teleport into areas where they won't fit, so two-block high ceilings will keep them out.
The Enderman's ability to pick up TNT means that if an Enderman is standing on area lit by redstone, as soon as it places TNT down it will blow itself up.
Strateji[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
Endermanlar savaşmak için oyundaki en tehlikeli moblardan biri sayılırlar. Tarafsız oldukları zaman bile çok kolay kışkırtılırlar. Demir Golem hariç en yüksek cana sahip mobdurlar ve ölümcül derecede yüksek zarar verirler (hard/hardcore zorluk seviyelerinde maksimum canın yarısını götürürler). Hepsinden önemlisi dövüşte ışınlanma özelliğini kullanarak oyuncuya arkadan saldırabilir ya da görüş alanının dışına ışınlanıp daha sonra sürpriz saldırılar gerçekleştirebilirler.
That said, they do have a few weaknesses that can be exploited: They take damage from water and rain on top of most of the usual sources, sunlight can turn them neutral (as does water or fire damage), and their height lets the player retreat to, or attack them from, a 2 block high shelter. Also, while their block-moving ability can be annoying, they don't use it purposefully: If they breach your defenses, it's by accident, and you need to strengthen your defenses.
Avoiding attack[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
There are only three ways to provoke an Enderman:
- Actually hit it, which is usually easy to avoid. Using potions against them, or pushing them off a cliff or into a trap, will not provoke them.
- Set off TNT with a flint and steel or flame bow. Setting it off with Dispensers or Redstone power won't provoke them.
- Look at its face/upper body with the crosshairs. Looking at them through transparent blocks such as glass or fences will not provoke them, so a windowed watchtower is safe. As well, a player wearing a pumpkin as a helmet can look at them safely, without provoking them. This can be very useful in The End. However, once provoked, a pumpkin will not prevent them from attacking, nor will the pumpkin help as armor. The pumpkin can be a disadvantage because it is hard to see through and other mobs can kill you easily.
As Endermen are 3 blocks tall, the player can keep his or her house's interior 2-2.5 blocks tall to prevent Endermen from teleporting into it. Due partly to their size, Endermen are usually only encountered in relatively open spaces. Although they will still spawn, you're much more likely to see other mobs in cramped caves underground, before you see any Endermen. When exploring caves, a player can often spot an Enderman in the darkness by its glowing eyes. A player can use this warning to avoid accidentally staring at them. In a cave, you can often retreat into a 2 block high area, or even build a small ceiling as shelter as soon as one is spotted.
Also, if the player is in a body of water, no closer than 2-3 blocks away from dry land, and at least one block deep, and provokes an Enderman, it will become aggressive, but rather than charge and attack when the player moves the crosshairs away, it will stand in one spot for at least 30 seconds, then either teleport into the water, take damage, and teleport away, or continue to stand in one spot. Also, if the player continuously stares at the Enderman for at least 30 seconds, it may teleport away, or try to attack, and then teleport away upon coming in contact with water. After at least 90–120 seconds, if the Enderman has not tried to attack or teleport away, it will turn neutral again.
If provoked under sunlight, Endermen will usually teleport away rather than attack the player. In any case, they will immediately become neutral. In rain, they will teleport randomly and rapidly, and even if provoked, they will not stay hostile.
Defense[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
If a player has accidentally provoked an Enderman, they have several options for turning them neutral and cutting off the fight:
- Endermen will become neutral and teleport away once they take damage from water, lava, fire, or any other environmental source (except fall damage). This makes a bucket of water/lava (or a Dispenser with a Bucket) very useful for chasing off an accidentally provoked Enderman, or for clearing out crowds in The End. Likewise, if the player retreating into water (beyond their attack range of 3-4 blocks), they will generally try to follow, but then take damage from the water, turn neutral, and teleport away. Similarly, Flint and Steel can put fire in their way, and they are likely to walk into the fire.
- Enchanted weapons can be useful: Hitting them with a Fire Aspect sword, or otherwise setting them on fire will also cause them to turn neutral and teleport rapidly. Using a Knockback sword to knock them into water or off a steep drop will effectively get rid of them.
- Luring them into sunlight or rain will likewise turn them neutral and make them go away. (If already provoked, you may need to attack or "look" at them in the sun.)
- When Endermen take damage from a Creeper explosion when following you, right after the blast they have a chance of teleporting away and back again, teleporting away and getting neutral, just getting neutral or still continuing to follow you.
- When you encounter Endermen in the desert, you can try hiding behind a cactus, or build some around you (try not to get hurt by them yourself). Unfortunately, they may teleport behind you instead of running into the cactus, or they may even pick the cactus up.
- If you're planning on using a trap for them, make a 3 deep hole with 1 extra block on top (not over the hole!), then make a 2 high way out, make a way back up and suffocate them with sand or gravel by placing it on the 1 extra block on top.
Combat[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
The most basic preparation against them is to build a 2-high ceiling, at least 3×3 in size. 4×4 is a little safer, giving more room to retreat out of their attack range. Underground or in close quarters, this should be done against a wall to prevent them from teleporting behind you. In an open area, it's probably better to have the shelter open on all sides, including removing any pillar used to build it. This will let you scan in all directions, and also keep watch for other monsters such as Skeletons or Creepers.
Hostile Endermen will often teleport away after a player hits them, though they may attack first. Similarly, Endermen may teleport away several seconds after attacking. Above or below ground, be very wary if they teleport away in the middle of a fight, as they may well teleport behind you (and attack) as soon as you emerge from your shelter. In open areas or under high ceilings, they may also teleport onto the roof. Endermen teleportation can be tracked by looking for the glowing particle trail they leave behind, or by listening for their snarls and screeches.
Their melee attacks hit hard enough that you want to avoid being hit by them as much as possible. Naturally, you'll want good armor and sword, preferably iron or better. For armor enchantments, only Protection and Thorns will be useful. For the sword, Sharpness and Knockback are both useful. However, Fire Aspect is useless for hunting them, as they will turn neutral and flee at the first strike.
A flint and steel is difficult to use effectively, but still rather useful, as the flame can damage them before they are provoked. Prior to 1.6.1, with care, lava can be used similarly. Before 1.6.1, Endermen that wander into fire or lava will not teleport away, nor will they become aggressive to the player. This can be used to weaken or kill them, though killing them will require they setting them on fire several times, due to their high hit points. One problem with this is that the drops might get destroyed by the lava.
Another way to kill them is to use wolves. Since wolves cause 4 hearts of damage, it will take 5 hits to finish them off. If one has enough wolves (+4), they can kill it very quickly (in under 10 seconds). Also, Endermen will not teleport when attacked by wolves (although this may be because wolves attack the Enderman's legs). However, they will usually damage the wolves 3 or 4 times before dying. However if a lot of wolves attack one Enderman from one direction, the damaged wolves will be flung back behind the others, allowing the damage to be "shared" among the pack.
In general, focus on hitting their legs, as they will not teleport when their legs are attacked. Try to time your attacks so that the Enderman is continually knocked back, so that it will not be able to hit you. This will usually kill them fairly quickly.
You can perform preemptive strikes against Endermen by keeping your crosshair over them, which will cause them to stay still for several seconds, or until the Enderman is hit, whichever comes first. A player can also get in the first hit by looking only at the Enderman's legs until they attack - though once hit, the Enderman will become aggressive as normal.
A height advantage of at least one block will also help keep the Enderman at bay as you hit it. A three block height advantage will prevent them from hitting you at all.
Fishing lures will hit an Enderman and snag them on the end of the line. However, the Enderman teleports away when the lure hits them (possibly behind a wall or into caves), so this is only sometimes useful as a tool for killing them. If do you manage to pull it forward, it will travel a remarkable distance.
Another effective way of hunting an Enderman is to make a 4-block high pillar underneath yourself, then look at them. The Enderman will run toward you and come into melee range. You will be in range to attack them, but they will not be in range to attack you. Make sure that there are no skeletons nearby (within 16 blocks), as they will shoot you off your pillar and make you a vulnerable target. If you can restrict the Enderman to a single square, you may also be able to drop three blocks of sand and gravel onto them, which will suffocate them to death.
Another technique is to have four or more wolves ready before attacking them. Fewer wolves can still help, but be ready to help them out with your own attacks, and/or by healing them during combat. Similarly, Iron golems will attack Endermen, and will kill one in two hits. Endermen will hit the iron golem once before the iron golem kills it.
If you are near a high drop, it is possible to kill Endermen by pushing them off the edge of a cliff. With care, this can be done without even provoking them. Note that Endermen cannot teleport while falling, so it may be possible to kill them with repeated attacks that knock them down the slope.
Endermen also cannot teleport when riding a minecart, even hitting them with an arrow will not cause the Enderman to teleport away (Though they will flash red and disappear for a second, as if trying to teleport unsuccessfully.) This is one potential way to kill them at a distance.
Players with brewing capability can also use splash potions of poison against them. A level II potion, or two level I potions (waiting for the first to finish before using the second) can reduce them to 1 health, or nearly so. Then they can easily be killed with a single sword blow. Make sure to carry a milk bucket to cure self-inflicted poison, and be wary that it may take two hits to kill them if the potion(s) struck too far away (reducing their effect).
Video[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
History[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
|?||At first, when Notch was still designing the Endermen, he thought they were not 'creepy' enough, coming with the idea that having a situation which the player would want to avoid could make the Enderman significantly more scary. This gave Notch the idea to implement the staring feature, where aiming the crosshair at the Enderman's face would cause a suspenseful moment in which breaking eye contact would trigger an attack, as well as the Enderman having the ability to teleport so that when the player has stared at the Enderman, he or she would have to face a consequence for that action.|
|According to Burnie Burns of Rooster Teeth Productions, the Endermen's weakness to water was suggested by Burnie's son when Notch mentioned that he needed to come up with a way to kill a group of Endermen.|
|?||In the Beta 1.8 demo at PAX, Endermen dropped diamonds as a placeholder for Ender Pearls.|
|1.8-pre1||Endermen were added.|
|1.8||The Enderman was officially introduced in Beta 1.8, "part one" of the Adventure Update.|
|In Beta 1.8pre1&2, Endermen originally had green eyes and emitted black smoke. The release of Beta 1.8 changed the eyes to purple and black smoke has been replaced with purple particles similar to the particles emitted from Nether portals.|
|The blocks Endermen can pick up are now limited. In Beta 1.8 pre-releases, Endermen were able to pick up any block, including Bedrock.|
|1.9pre1||Before this update, Endermen could be killed with the use of a bow. Afterwards, arrows, snowballs, eggs, and negative splash potions will not hit them due to the fact that they teleport away before impact.|
|Enderman will teleport away and become neutral if the player pours water on a hostile Enderman.|
|1.9pre3||Notch stated "Endermen suck because they're annoying, and because I nerfed them and made them too easy. I shall fix this." Because of this, Endermen were modified in this update to have 40 hp (instead of 20), requiring 6 hits (5 with all critical hits) from a diamond sword to kill, or 40 punches with just a fist. Combined with their teleportation aspect, Endermen are significantly more challenging.|
|1.9pre4||The Endermen now have a realm of their own: the End, where they spawn frequently.|
|Endermen used to burn in sunlight, but as of this update, Endermen won't burn in daylight. They will instead teleport away when the player walks up to them in the daytime, making it extremely hard to get close enough to kill them.|
|Sound Update||Before the Sound Update, Endermen used the sound effects of Zombies as a place holder. Then in Beta 1.9, the Zombie sounds for the Enderman were removed. On November 13th, 2011 Endermen received their own audio scheme, most notably a long moan overlaid with static for when they are triggered hostile by the player. The noises are actually a person saying 'Hi' and 'What's Up' backwards and distorted. |
|1.3.1||12w22a||The Enderman's behavior was modified slightly. Now, it stops in front of the player. When the player swings his/her sword, it teleports behind the player.|
|1.4.2||12w38a||The Enderman's sound now plays the full length sounds instead of shortened, now if you look at them (or they open the jaw), a static sound will play.|
Issues[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
Issues relating to “Enderman” are maintained on the issue tracker. Report issues there.
Trivia[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
- Notch claimed in public that the Endermen is a "(subtle)" reference to "the Slenderman", a similar looking monster with a similar name. Given the later development of the End, it is possible he already had the name in mind, and did not choose it because of the Reddit thread in which their name was revealed.
- If an Enderman is in his aggressive state, you can prevent him from walking/going anywhere if you stare at him (you can freeze the endermen as long as your cursor remains on him). However, if attacked in this state, the endermen may teleport away.
- The Enderman stare animation will still play while the game is paused or when attaching a sign.
- The Enderman seems to use a re-colored version of the player's face texture, much like blazes, zombies, and skeletons.
- The exact size of an Enderman is 0.6x0.6x2.9 blocks(1.9x1.9x9.5 feet).
- Endermen sounds seems to stem from reverse audios:
- the "idle1" sound is a reversed “here”
- the "idle2" sound is a reversed "hiya"
- the "idle3" sound is a down-pitched “whats up?” or "this way!"
- the "idle4" sound is a down-pitched reversed "forever!"
- the "idle5" sound is a reversed "uh oh!"
- In their texture, their jaw is separated from their skull. This makes the Enderman the first mob with the ability to physically open their mouths without simply switching to a different texture. Due to the player's perspective, however, the player sees the back of the Enderman's head when it opens its mouth, making it difficult to tell that it is open. If a player is one block higher, they see through the Enderman's open mouth. They open their mouths by moving their skulls higher than their jaw.
- If an Enderman is hit by a flaming arrow, it will be set on fire, but will not take damage from the arrow itself, nor will it become hostile.
- An effective, though difficult to achieve, way to gain lots of experience and ender pearls is to go the End, make a 1x1x4 tower, stand on top of it, look at Endermen and have them teleport to you while you slaughter them. They cannot reach you because the tower is too tall. Another way is to create a 3x3 platform at 3 above the ground (leaving 2 blocks space for you to stand under) Endermen are 3 tall, and will not get under the platform while you can still hit them, but you are not in the risk of falling like with a tower.
- Even in an aggressive state, they can still pick up blocks, which at times made it seem as though they were tearing through walls to reach the player.
- Even though water/rain is harmful to them, it will still put out a burning Enderman.
- If a Mob Spawner is tweaked to spawn Endermen, the model inside will have it's head jutting out the top of the frame.
- The purple particles the Endermen emit are hard-coded into the game, so they cannot be re-textured without mods.
- Endermen are able to create snow golems and iron golems if they pick up a pumpkin and set it on already placed snow or iron blocks.
- After 12w38a Snapshot update, the previously unused stare.ogg and scream.ogg can now be heard without use of any mods. Stare.ogg plays whenever the player is staring at an Enderman, and Scream.ogg plays when Enderman is chasing a player.
- When in third-person front view, if there is an Enderman behind the player, it won't become aggressive if the cursor is placed over it. Turning so that the crosshair would be on the Enderman in first-person will provoke it, despite it not being onscreen.
- If an Enderman is focusing on another player, a different player can still look at its hostile points without the Enderman attacking the player afterwards. However, if you try shooting an arrow at it, it will ignore the creature it's attacking and focus on the one who shot the arrow.
- Amusingly, if an Enderman is set on fire, they may try to put it out by teleporting into water, and therefore committing 'suicide', because they take damage from it.
- When in The End, it is possible to get Endermen to target the Ender Dragon. Shoot the Ender Dragon with an arrow, then, when it comes to attack you, place yourself so there are Endermen between you and the Ender Dragon. When the Ender Dragon makes contact with the Endermen, it will do damage, causing them to target the Ender Dragon. They do not seem to do any damage, however, they can be quite useful, as the Ender Dragon can not pass through Endermen. One can stand behind many Endermen and strike at the Ender Dragon while it is being blocked by the Endermen.
- Amusingly enough, if an Enderman is caught in rain, he will continuously teleport in random directions. Players can sometimes, during rain, see Endermen teleport in front of them quickly and teleport off the moment they take damage.
- If an Enderman is trapped in a 4 block tall structure, he cannot teleport.
- Endermen die when falling from 44 blocks high or higher. Making them fall from a little less makes you able to kill them by hand.
- If you throw a Potion of Invisibility to an Enderman, the Enderman will be invisible, but you can still see the eyes.
- Burning Endermen will teleport randomly; similar to if they are in rain.
- Oddly enough, when you walk close to an Enderman [about 1 to 2 blocks away] and look at it, it won't become provoked.
- Endermen can climb up ladders.
- (360)If spawned by using a spawn egg in Minecraft Xbox360 Edition in the rain they may become immune to the rain damage.
- When the Enderman's mouth is open, you cannot see water through it. (Possibly a bug)
Gallery[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
Beta 1.8 pre-release[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
Beta 1.8+[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]
- He be stealing my TNT.png
An Enderman holding TNT. Note that the N of the TNT block is inverted.
A group of Endermen in a desert biome.
References[düzenle | kaynağı değiştir]